Michail Paraskakis — kama

“Barley porridge, or a crust of barley bread, and water do not make a very cheerful diet, but nothing gives one keener pleasure than the ability to derive pleasure even from that.” — Seneca

“The sunflower does not want to face the sun, the pine tree does not want to fight bugs, and the paramecium does not want to reverse its direction.  Lacking a brain, they cannot desire anything…In a full-fledged case of desire, by way of contrast, a creature is able to form a mental representation of the thing it desires, compare the current state of affairs with the desired state, and initiate action to diminish the difference between these states of affairs. Only a creature with considerable brainpower will have these abilities. ” (William B. Irvine in On Desire)

(Michail Paraskakis, 2016)